One of the sites Carroll works with is the Draper Wildlife Management Area near Brattonsville, South Carolina , which includes a acre swath of sunflowers. Carroll says the sunflowers are so popular, he gets overrun with calls from people interested in their status.
Sunflowers are warm-weather plants, but their bloom times can vary.
Helianthus Annuus, Common Sunflower - a Complete Guide (With Images)
But some sunflower hot spots are predicting blooms through August. At wildlife management areas like the one in Brattonsvile, the sunflowers aren't planted primarily for social media fodder. They're actually "Dove Management Fields" that set the stage for mourning dove hunting season in September.
There is something very metal about a field of sunflowers transforming into a reaping ground for doves, but save those thoughts for your next Instagram post. Speaking of Instagram, it's no wonder that the image-conscious side of social media has taken a shine to the sunflower. Dave Diggs, owner of the Sunflower Garden in Westminster, Maryland, says he thinks Facebook and Instagram have helped catch people's interest and sustain a unique fascination with the bloom.
Diggs says that sunflowers are affected by the heat, and it could definitely make them bloom sooner. But places like the Sunflower Garden plant several times a season, so a premature bloom isn't really that big of a deal. Look for a ground temp of between 60 to 70 degrees. For most areas, this will be approximately three weeks after the last frost.
Planting sunflowers indoors gives you a head start on the growing season.
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Simply tuck the seeds into peat pots around the time of your last spring frost. They should be the right size for transplant once the soil is the appropriate temperature. Different sunflowers require different planting depths and spacing. How to grow sunflowers from seed and how deep to plant sunflower seeds depends on your specific sunflower cultivar. Space seeds 6 inches apart. Plants should be thinned out in a few weeks to the proper spacing. If soil temperatures are just right, sunflower seedlings will sprout up in 10 to 14 days. Growing sunflower seeds requires space.
To start sunflowers indoors, plant three seeds per each 3- to 4-inch peat pot. A soilless planting media will give you the best drainage. Indoor germination usually happens in 6 to 10 days. You can enjoy continuous blooms through summer by planting seeds every couple of weeks. Because sunflower seeds contain large amounts of natural oil, they require a lot of water for germination.
After planting, water the ground thoroughly. Keep the soil moist with frequent, light watering until germination occurs.
If starting indoors, cover your pots with clear plastic wrap to keep in moisture. Remove the plastic as soon as the seeds sprout. Once the sunflower seedlings have their first set of true leaves, thin the seedlings to the recommended row spacing for your variety.
Red Sun Sunflower Seeds (Helianthus annuus)
Small sunflowers may require only 6 inches between each plant, while large varieties might need up to 3 feet. Closer spacings are possible for garden aesthetics, but crowded plants will produce smaller flowers. Indoor sunflower seedlings should be reduced to one seedling per cup. Simply choose the strongest sunflower and pinch back the others. And once sunflowers begin to grow, they grow quickly. Sunflower care only requires a few basic growing tips. Although sunflowers require a lot of water to germinate, they only require an inch of water per week during the growing season.
Use a watering nozzle to easily water once a week until the top 6 inches of soil is moist. If you feel your plants require better nutrition, you can work a balanced, slow-acting granular fertilizer into the soil surrounding your sunflowers. Sunflower fertilizers are available in a few garden centers, but a basic fertilizer is really all you need. One of the greatest sunflower challenges is weed control. Weeds compete with sunflowers for moisture and nutrition. Add up to a 4-inch layer of organic mulch to your sunflower garden. Leave an area of bare soil around each sunflower stalk to help deter pests and disease.
Although many pests love sunflower plants, the damage is usually minimal.
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In most cases, insecticides are not necessary unless damage is severe. Most sunflowers rely heavily on insect pollinators, so care should be taken to limit any use of insecticides during pollination. Some pests you may encounter are sunflower moths, cutworms, weevils, caterpillars, grasshoppers, wireworms and the sunflower maggot. Disease is a big risk, but it mostly affects farm crops. New varieties of sunflowers have resistance to many diseases. Once disease occurs, the only option is to remove and destroy the affected plants.
Verticillium wilt, sclerotinia rot, rust and downy mildew may occur. Your best prevention is proper plant spacing in well-draining soil. When growing seeds for harvest, birds can become an issue. Scarecrows, owl decoys and shiny metal pie plates can help deter birds. You can also plant certain oil-rich cultivars, such as Black Peredovik, to keep birds away from your seed sunflowers. Harvesting sunflower seeds is the perfect way to enjoy both the beauty of the flowers in your garden and their delicate seeds.
Non-GMO / Open Pollinated
Sunflowers produce a bounty of seeds that can be added to breads, eaten on salads or even turned into a creamy nut-free sunflower butter. Growing a seed production variety will increase your harvest of edible sunflower seeds.
Expect to harvest seeds approximately 30 days after pollination. Begin checking for seed maturity in early fall. The seeds will begin to face towards the ground as the flower petals dry and fall out. Once ready, simply cut off seed heads with a generous amount of stem attached. Hang in a warm, dry place away from rodents and insects. Wait until the back of the sunflower head turns brown before harvesting the seeds. Most of the credit is given to Peter the Great. The plant was initially used as an ornamental, but by literature mentions sunflower cultivated by oil production.
By , the manufacture of sunflower oil was done on a commercial scale. The Russian Orthodox Church increased its popularity by forbidding most oil foods from being consumed during Lent.
However, sunflower was not on the prohibited list and therefore gained in immediate popularity as a food. By the early 19th century, Russian farmers were growing over 2 million acres of sunflower. During that time, two specific types had been identified: oil-type for oil production and a large variety for direct human consumption.
Government research programs were implemented. Pustovoit developed a very successful breeding program at Krasnodar. Oil contents and yields were increased significantly. Today, the world's most prestigious sunflower scientific award is known as The Pustovoit Award. Sunflower Back to North America. By the late 19th century, Russian sunflower seed found its way into the US. By , seed companies were advertising the 'Mammoth Russian' sunflower seed in catalogues. This particular seed name was still being offered in the US in , nearly years later.
A likely source of this seed movement to North America may have been Russian immigrants. The first commercial use of the sunflower crop in the US was silage feed for poultry. In , the Missouri Sunflower Growers' Association participated in what is likely the first processing of sunflower seed into oil. Canada started the first official government sunflower breeding program in The basic plant breeding material utilized came from Mennonite immigrants from Russia gardens.